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What is a poison that inhibits the electron transport chain?


What is the effect of 2/4 dinitrophenol on mitochondria?

Mechanism of action DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat.

How does 2/4 dinitrophenol cause weight loss?

DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) has a variety of industrial uses, including as a photographic chemical, a fertilizer and in the manufacturing of dyes and explosives. It causes weight loss by burning fat and carbohydrates, in turn causing energy to be converted into heat.

How does Oligomycin affect ATP production?

Oligomycin A inhibits ATP synthase by blocking its proton channel (FO subunit), which is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (energy production). This process is due to facilitated diffusion of protons into the mitochondrial matrix through an uncoupling protein such as thermogenin, or UCP1.

What happens if ATP synthase stops?

In the absence of ADP, the ATP synthase stops functioning and when it stops, so too does movement of protons back into the mitochondrion. With this information, it is possible to understand the link between energy usage and metabolism. The root of this, as noted, is respiratory control.

Does Oligomycin stop ATP synthesis?

Oligomycin (Omy) is an inhibitor of ATP synthase by blocking its proton channel (Fo subunit), which is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (energy production). The inhibition of ATP synthesis also inhibits respiration.

How does cyanide inhibit complex 4?

Cyanide binds to Fe3+ in heme-containing proteins. This inhibits the terminal cytochrome complex IV of the electron transport chain. The blocklock of complex IV by cyanide depletes ATP culminating in cell death. Oxygen is unable to reoxidize the reduced cytochrome a3.

What is Antimycin effect on metabolism?

We conclude that rotenone and antimycin A inhibit the sodium-dependent transport of fluid, phosphate, and glucose by blocking mitochondrial ATP production. Furthermore, the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and the inhibition of net sodium transport are closely correlated.

Where does Antimycin a come from?

It is produced by Streptomyces bacteria and has found commercial use as a fish poison. It has a role as a mitochondrial respiratory-chain inhibitor and an antifungal agent.

What mitochondrial enzyme is affected by antimycin A?

Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain between cytochrome b and c.

Is Antimycin an antibiotic?

—Antimycin A, a fungicidal antibiotic which specifically inhibits metabolic reduction of cytochrome c, was found to be lethal for Bacillus megaterium. However, the bactericidal action was correlated with a capacity of antimycin to hinder plasma-membrane functions other than cytochrome-mediated respiration.