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What is the ancient Greek word for intelligence?

Phronesis (Ancient Greek: φρόνησῐς, romanized: phrónēsis) is an ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence relevant to practical action, implying both good judgement and excellence of character and habits. …

What is Phronimos?

The phronimos is the person whose life is characterized by such applications of phronêsis and who, as a result, tends to flourish throughout his life. Such a person is said to be eudaimôn or “happy.”

What does Aristotle mean by the Phronimos?

Aristotle’s phronimos and Mencius’s sage are the paragons of virtue. They exemplify practical wisdom, enabling them to perform virtuous actions called for in different situations, and are the concrete models of virtue for all human beings, without whom others would not be able to cultivate their virtues.

What is the Greek word for thoughts?

Phren (Ancient Greek: φρήν, romanized: phrēn, lit. ‘mind’; plural phrenes, φρένες) is an Ancient Greek word for the location of thought or contemplation.

What does nous mean in Greek?

mind

What is the Greek word for idea?

The word idea comes from Greek ἰδέα idea “form, pattern,” from the root of ἰδεῖν idein, “to see.”

What does Eidos mean in Greek?

Eidos may refer to: Eidos (philosophy), a Greek term meaning “form” “essence”, “type” or “species”.

What are the main ideas presented philosophy?

Our department is very strong, covering five main fields of philosophy:

  • Epistemology: theories of knowledge.
  • Ethics: theories of morality and moral principles.
  • Metaphysics: theories of existence, identity, cause-and-effect, time-and-space, etc.
  • Political philosophy: theories of authority, justice, liberty, etc.

Does Descartes believe in God?

According to Descartes, God’s existence is established by the fact that Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of God; but the truth of Descartes’s clear and distinct ideas are guaranteed by the fact that God exists and is not a deceiver. Thus, in order to show that God exists, Descartes must assume that God exists.

What are the 3 main branches of philosophy?

Explain and differentiate three main areas of philosophy: ethics, epistemology and metaphysics.

What were Descartes main ideas?

Scholars agree that Descartes recognizes at least three innate ideas: the idea of God, the idea of (finite) mind, and the idea of (indefinite) body. In the letter to Elisabeth, he includes a fourth: the idea of the union (of mind and body).

What did Descartes mean by I think therefore I am?

“I think; therefore I am” was the end of the search Descartes conducted for a statement that could not be doubted. He found that he could not doubt that he himself existed, as he was the one doing the doubting in the first place. In Latin (the language in which Descartes wrote), the phrase is “Cogito, ergo sum.”

What is the meaning of Descartes?

Definitions of Descartes. noun. French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (1596-1650)

How does Descartes define reason?

Descartes firmly believed that reason is a native gift of humans and that true knowledge can be directly gleaned not from books but only through the methodical application of reason.

How does Descartes know he exist?

Descartes knows that he himself is finite. He reasons that it is not possible for a finite being to dream of infinity. Therefore the idea of the infinite must come before the idea of the finite, before any person can begin to think of what he or she is.

Why is Descartes important?

Descartes has been heralded as the first modern philosopher. He is famous for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for the solving of geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations.

What is Descartes theory?

Descartes argued the theory of innate knowledge and that all humans were born with knowledge through the higher power of God. It was this theory of innate knowledge that later led philosopher John Locke (1632–1704) to combat the theory of empiricism, which held that all knowledge is acquired through experience.

Why is dualism wrong?

Dualism fails because there’s no need for the extra-physical stuff. The physical stuff is sufficient, and it’s just a quirk of the human brain that it can’t place physical operations into the category of mental experience.

What are the two types of minds Descartes talks about?

Substance dualism, or Cartesian dualism, most famously defended by René Descartes, argues that there are two kinds of foundation: mental and physical. This philosophy states that the mental can exist outside of the body, and the body cannot think.

What is Descartes view of the self?

Abstract. In the ;Meditations’ and related texts from the early 1640s, Descartes argues that the self can be correctly considered as either a mind or a human being, and that the self’s properties vary accordingly. The self is constituted by the beings that jointly produce this mental life, and derives its unity from it …

What did David Hume say about self?

Hume suggests that the self is just a bundle of perceptions, like links in a chain. To look for a unifying self beyond those perceptions is like looking for a chain apart from the links that constitute it.

How does Kant define self?

According to him, we all have an inner and an outer self which together form our consciousness. The inner self is comprised of our psychological state and our rational intellect. The outer self includes our sense and the physical world. According to Kant, representation occurs through our senses.

What is self According to John Locke?

John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

What Socrates said about self?

And contrary to the opinion of the masses, one’s true self, according to Socrates, is not to be identified with what we own, with our social status, our reputation, or even with our body. Instead, Socrates famously maintained that our true self is our soul.

What is Kant main philosophy?

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that the supreme principle of morality is a standard of rationality that he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Thus, at the heart of Kant’s moral philosophy is a conception of reason whose reach in practical affairs goes well beyond that of a Humean ‘slave’ to the passions.

What is the highest good According to Kant?

Kant understands the highest good, most basically, as happiness proportionate to virtue, where virtue is the unconditioned good and happiness is the conditioned good.

What is Kant’s moral law?

The Moral Law: Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. In Moral Law, Kant argues that a human action is only morally good if it is done from a sense of duty, and that a duty is a formal principle based not on self-interest or from a consideration of what results might follow.

What is pure reasoning?

: the faculty that embraces the a priori forms of knowledge and is the source of transcendental ideas — compare intuitive reason.

What is Kant’s reason and will?

Roughly speaking, we can divide the world into beings with reason and will like ourselves and things that lack those faculties. Moral actions, for Kant, are actions where reason leads, rather than follows, and actions where we must take other beings that act according to their own conception of the law into account.